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Soil is a complex, dynamic, and essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem, consisting of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms. It forms through the weathering of rocks and minerals over time, as well as the decomposition of organic materials. Soil serves numerous critical functions, including supporting plant growth, regulating water flow and filtration, storing carbon, cycling nutrients, and providing habitat for a vast array of organisms. Soil properties such as texture, structure, pH, and nutrient content vary depending on factors such as climate, geology, vegetation, and land use practices. Healthy soil is vital for sustaining life on Earth and supporting agricultural productivity, biodiversity, and ecosystem resilience. However, soil degradation, erosion, pollution, and loss of fertility pose significant threats to soil health and global food security, highlighting the importance of sustainable soil management practices.