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Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment, encompassing both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) factors. It seeks to understand how organisms interact with each other and their surroundings, including relationships such as predation, competition, mutualism, and parasitism. Ecology examines the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy and nutrients through ecosystems, and the processes that shape ecological patterns and dynamics over time. It plays a critical role in addressing environmental challenges such as habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, climate change, and pollution, while also providing insights for sustainable resource management and conservation efforts.